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When thinking about tunnelling, which is encapsulating one protocol with another and then transporting that encapsulated packet across a network, you'll soon see yourself seeing terminology such as Transport, Carrier and Passenger protocols. So what is what? The passenger protocol is the protocol you want to carry over a network that does not understand it (or you do not want the network…

For my CCNP switch studies, I created a CCNP Switch mind map to help remember the key concepts and points for most of the topics covered in the exam. Please click here for the full mind map, and I hope you find it useful. I also have other posts which can be used a quick reference to various protocols or…

I came across the OSPF subcommand 'Sham-link' when studying for my CCNP Route exam, and was curious as to what it was. The OSPF sham link provides a logical link between two VRFs. It creates a link that makes the MPLS PE’s participating in the sham link appear as a point to point link within OSPF. These links are able…